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Types of Amino Acids
Alanine
Arginine
Aspartic Acid
Citrulline
Cysteine
Cystine
Glutamic Acid
Glutamine
Glycine
Histidine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Ornithine
Phenylalanine
Proline
Serine
Threonine
Tyrosine
Valine

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Oct 18,2017
Lysine K (Lys)
Low Price Amino Acids Vitamins & Nutrition Chemical Properties: Basic (Basic R-group)
Physical Properties: Polar (positively charged)

Lysine. an essential amino acid, has a positively charged amino group (a primary amine).

Lysine is basically alanine with a propylamine substituent on the?carbon. The β-amino group has a significantly higher pKa (about 10.5 in polypeptides) than does the β-amino group.

The amino group is highly reactive and often participates in a reactions at the active centers of enzymes. Proteins only have one β amino group, but numerous β amino groups. However, the higher pKa renders the lysyl side chains effectively less nucleophilic. Specific environmental effects in enzyme active centers can lower the pKa of the lysyl side chain such that it becomes reactive.

Note that the side chain has three methylene groups, so that even though the terminal amino group will be charged under physiological conditions, the side chain does have significant hydrophobic character. Lysines are often found buried with only the?amino group exposed to solvent.

Lysine is an essential amino acid and is a basic building block of all protein. This nutrient was first isolated in 1889 from casein.

Lysine is required for
It is required for growth and bone development in children, assists in calcium absorption and maintaining the correct nitrogen balance in the body and maintaining lean body mass. Furthermore it is needed to produce antibodies, hormones, enzymes, collagen formation as well as repair of tissue.

Since it helps with the building of muscle protein, it is useful for patients recovering from injuries and recovery after operations, and there might be use in lysine to help maintain healthy blood vessels. It also seems to assist in fighting herpes and cold sores.

Deficiency of lysine
Although a deficiency of lysine is rare, since it is found in so many protein foods, the symptoms may include anemia, enzyme disorders, lack of energy, hair loss, bloodshot eyes, weight loss and retarded growth as well as reproductive problems, poor appetite and poor concentration.

People on a vegan or vegetarian diet, using grains as their only source of protein are often deficient in this nutrient.

Dosage
The dosage listed is the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA), but be aware that this dosage is the minimum that you require per day, to ward off serious deficiency of this particular nutrient. In the therapeutic use of this nutrient, the dosage is usually increased considerably, but the toxicity level must be kept in mind.

The daily dosage of lysine is about 12 mg per kilogram of body weight per day - which would translate to about 840 mg for a 70 kg male.

Pregnant or breast feeding mothers, as well as patients with liver or kidney problems, must first consult a health professional before taking lysine supplements.

Toxicity and symptoms of high intake
Toxicity has not been determined but animals fed high amounts of lysine, have shown a tendency to gallstones as well as elevated cholesterol - but these tendencies have not been proven in humans.

Diarrhea and stomach cramps may be indicative in high dosage, but these are not consistent symptoms.

When more may be required
Athletes, burn patients and people suffering from herpes and cold sores may benefit from an increase of lysine.

Older people could also require more lysine, as one study found older men required more of this nutrient than younger men.

Other interesting points
Lysine must be used with care in supplement form when taking antibiotics as well.

Food sources of lysine
Good sources of lysine are found in cheese, eggs, lime beans, potatoes, milk, meat and brewer's yeast.
  • Lysine is an amino acid found in muscle tissue.
  • Important for children's growth and development of bone formation.
  • Important for healthy skin.
  • Low in vegetarians and individuals on meat restricted program.
  • Helps in formation of antibodies to help fight disease.
  • Deficiencies may lead to kidney stones.
  • Research indicates it is an antagonist to various viruses, including Herpes and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV).


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